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Full text of "Practical Organic Chemistry"

PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Pour into 100 c.c. water, and extract with ether. Distil off the
ether and crystallise the solid residue from petroleum spirit.
Yield, 8 grams ; m. p. 58-60°. C()H;VCO.CH, + NH,OH.HCl-f-
NaOH - C0H,C(NOH).CH, + NaCl + 3HaO.
2.  Acetophenonesemicarbazone.—Mix i gram of semi-
carbazide hydrochloride with I '5 grams of crystallised sodium
acetate, and dissolve in the smallest quantity of warm water.
Add i gram of acetophenone and sufficient spirit to produce a
clear solution when hot. Continue to heat for a few minutes. On
cooling,  the  semicarbazone deposits   as a yellow, crystalline
mass.      CCH.VCO.CH., + NH,.NH.CO.NH.,HC1 + NaC,H,O2
= C(.H5C(N.NH.CONH,)CH,"'+ NaCl + C2H4Oo.   Theoretical
yield ; m. p. 185—• 188'.
3.  Beckmann's Reaction.—Dissolve  i  gram of aceto-
phenoneoxime in 30 c.c. anhydrous ether, and add gradually
i'5 grams of powdered phosphorus pentachloride.    Distil off the
ether, and add a little water to the residue.    On cooling, crystals
of acetanilide separate.   Recrystallise from water, and determine
the melting point.
1.  CGH5.C1NOH).CH3 + PCI,
= C0H6.C(NC1).CH3 + POO, + HCL
2.  CGH&C(NC1)CH3+ H,0 = C0HflNH.CO.CH3 + HCL
4.  Benzoylacetone (Claiseris Reaction).—Six grams of dry,
!                                powdered sodium ethoxide are added to 20 grams of dry ethyl
i                                acetate, and cooled in water.   The sodium ethoxide is prepared
by dissolving 4 grams of sodium in 40 c.c. absolute alcohol, and.
^                             distilling off the excess of alcohol, first from the water-bath, and
'                             then from the metal-bath, in a current of dry hydrogen, the
temperature of the bath being raised gradually to 200°, until
'         ' nothing more passes over. The white cake is detached rapidly
\                            powdered, and the requisite quantity quickly weighed out and
1                            added to the'ethyl acetate. After standing a quarter of an
j                            hour, 10 grams of acetophenone are added, when sodium benzoyl
|                            acetone begins to separate. A little ether is added, and, after
1                            standing for a few hours, the sodium compound is filtered and
!                            washed with ether. The sodium compound is then dried in
f                            trje air, dissolved in cold water, and acidified with acetic acid.
p                            Benzoylacetoneseparates out. Yield,9—10grams; m.p.60—61°.